Online Custom «Contemporary Approach in Diabetes and HIV Management» Essay Sample

Contemporary Approach in Diabetes and HIV Management

Introduction

Recent findings by health experts indicate that there are indeed high chances of individuals suffering from diabetes and HIV infection to have a long life span. The statement contradicts some beliefs and perceptions from members of the public who have always held to the opinion that people having diabetes or infected with HIV are only entitled to a short life span. According to these health experts, believing that one will soon die due to a certain ailment is a primitive idea that has no grounds in the recumbent society. In fact, health organisations have advanced to such a level that they have matching solutions in terms of medication to almost each and every disease that individual might be suffering from.

Moreover, victims of diabetes and HIV infections must abide to several regulations stipulated by health organisations in conjunction with medical experts. The regulations require individuals to heed to medication procedures that will save them from further complications that might be caused by the infection. In this regard, patients will be required to work when being monitored by doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, and other medical practitioners. In this study, the paper aims to establish the contemporary approach in diabetes and HIV management. The paper will explore the various multi-professional diabetes and HIV services to give a clear understanding of how these professionals’ role contribute to the service. In addition, the paper will critically evaluate the educational strategies for diabetic patients that are aimed at making the patients to have effective self-management.

Case Study

The information given in this paper was motivated by an examination of a 51 year old male patient. The patient has been suffering from type 2 diabetes for a period of six years. In addition to this, two years ago, it was discovered that the same patient had contracted the HIV virus. With that being the case, the patient has undergone various treatments such as Tenofovir treatment meant to improve condition for patients living with HIV. However, Tenofovir treatment was later replaced with unconventional treatment when it had been discovered that it caused renal impairment to the patient. In addition, the patient has undergone diabetes treatment that basically included taking 1g of Metformin daily. In line with that, the patient has also been taking 80mg of Gilclazade twice in a day.

Diabetes Professional Services and Professional’s Role in the Treatment

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases where the infected individual has a high blood sugar. Concentration of sugar in the blood is caused by either of the two reasons; the pancreas does not give out enough insulin to the body or the body cells do not respond sufficiently to the insulin that is produced by the pancreas (Bennett 2013). There are two types of diabetes that individuals might contract throughout their lives: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Type 1 Diabetes results from the body’s inability to produce sufficient amount of insulin. The condition was initially known as Juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus where the cause of low insulin production in the body has not yet been established (Hajos et al. 2012).

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Type 2 diabetes is caused by the body’s inability to remain resistant to the insulin produced. In this diabetes, body cells do not properly respond to insulin and can therefore lead to lack of insulin produced in the body (Fayers & Machin 2013). There is a third type of diabetes which is not that common among people; Gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women who have had no history of diabetes throughout their lives. Gestational diabetes is mainly caused by high concentration of glucose in the blood of pregnant women (Roborel de Climens et al. 2015).

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes

The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes are weight loss, increased or frequent urination, increased hunger, and increased thirst. These signs and symptoms may worsen rapidly with time (Millard et al. 2014). Others signs and symptoms that can mark one onset of diabetes are blurry vision, fatigue, headaches, itchy skin and slow healing of wounds and cuts. One might also experience skin rashes which are commonly known as diabetic dermodromes (Fayers & Machin 2013). Untreated diabetes leads to dreadful complications such as damages of blood vessels, high risk of contacting cardiovascular diseases, and death due to coronary artery disease.

 
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Diabetes Services and Treatment

There is no doubt that everyone is conversant with the fact that most diabetes care is done by primary care providers such as nurses and doctors. It is clear that less that 20% of people with diabetes definitely know about endocrinologists. Furthermore, there are few professionals that are able to handle the ever increasing number of individuals with diabetes (Bennett 2013). With that being the case, the negative outcome of this is that the vast majority of diabetes management personnel who are health care providers are not managing diabetes patients like it should be. Many diabetes victims have complained of not receiving the required attention when they required medications (Wass & Owen 2014).

However, it is important to note that the number one person in the management of diabetes must be the person who is suffering from a disease. It is the suffering individual who should take full responsibility of his/her well being (Fayers & Machin 2013). With the assistance and back up of the health care team, it will be one’s own responsibility to make most of the daily decisions that concern this or that disease. Self-management includes keeping track of medications and insulin. It also incorporates making informed decisions towards food and exercise choices (Wass & Owen 2014).

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Treatment

Current treatment of diabetes includes going through an insulin therapy with the help of a well informed diabetes doctor. Over the previous couple of decades, health care team has realised that taking low-carbohydrate diet is also important for treating diabetes conditions (Ronacher et al. 2015). According to World Health Organisation (WHO), diagnosing of individuals with diabetes includes participating in the following activities:

  • Focusing on bringing blood sugar to the normal level referred to as euglycemia.
  • Taking healthy diet that comprises of low carbohydrate supplements.
  • Doing regular physical exercises such as jogging, walking for long distances, going to the gym etc.
  • Adhering to effective medications such as insulin in case the patient is suffering from diabetes type 1. Moreover, in case of diabetes type 2, oral medications and insulin will be effective.
  • Avoiding drugs and alcohol as well as smoking.
  • Taking Metformin 1g once a day and Gliclazide 80mg twice a day (Bennett 2013).

HIV Services and Treatment

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a type of retrovirus that causes AIDS, a condition that leads to progressive breakdown of an individual’s immune system. The condition is highly severe and therefore causes life threatening opportunistic infections. When not treated, the chances of surviving with the virus are estimated to be nine to eleven years which also depends on the subtype of the HIV virus (Bennett 2013).  Therefore, considering that the individual in this study is undergoing some kind of treatment, he stands at a high chance of living longer. However, a lot of caution must be taken in this case for one more reason, apart from the fact that this individual has a HIV virus; he is also suffering from type 2 diabetes which might compound his chances of living longer (Wass & Owen 2014).

Signs and Symptoms of HIV

It is highly vital for any individual to precisely know the various signs and symptoms of HIV infection. Familiarising oneself with these signs and symptoms is important for not only knowing when one might require medication, but also learning when his/her condition is getting worse (Wass & Owen 2014). Fever is the first sign which is accompanied by mild symptoms such as swollen lads and fatigue. The sign is a clear indication that a HIV virus is getting to the blood system (Guo, Han & Liu 2010). Frequent sore throat and headaches is another indication that one must consider seeking medical test for a HIV virus. Skin rashes are a symptom that can occur at early or late stage in the course of HIV infection. Frequent Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are the main symptoms (Crowell et al. 2014).

In this case, the victim is exposed to severe weight loss and loss of appetite. Dry cough is another sign and symptom that calls for HIV testing; the cough can be ongoing for several weeks and does not seem to be easily mitigated.  Other signs and symptoms include associate diseases such as tuberculosis, cancer, pneumonia, and cancer. HIV virus is transmitted through blood, during birth, breast feeding, and through sexual intercourse (Drotar 2014). The main mode of HIV transmission passed from male to his sexual partner in the form of semen fluids is sexual intercourse.    

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Diabetes Services and Treatment

A couple of decades ago, HIV was declared an international disaster. The governments of many countries noticed that the infection was taking the lives of many people. For this reason, governments, states, and nations engaged into seeking a spontaneous solution that could be used to curb the pensiveness of HIV infection (Wass & Owen 2014). Though it was hard to find the exact cure for the infection, governments together with medical practitioners succeeded in coming up with several prevention and treatment methods (Guo, Han & Liu 2010).

Apparently, today the public is much more aware of these prevention and treatment methods. The most common ones include the use of ARVs, Tenofovir, and use of condoms as a way of prevention. For the treatment of HIV infection in adults and 2 years old and older paediatric patients, tenofovir is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents (Crowell et al. 2014). The treatment is based on analysing and evaluating of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts. Research has indicated that application of Tenofovir significantly lowers the risks of contracting and spreading of HIV. However, use of Tenofovir is associated with certain risks that can greatly affect the user (Drotar 2014). Application of Tenofovir has led to renal impairment; this has caused many people to shun the use of this drug and therefore resorted to unconventional drug regimen such as the use of Darunavir, Ritonavir and Lamivudine (LeBlanc et al. 2012).

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Darunavir treatment of HIV was first approved by the United State of America. It is taken in the form of food or drug by adults and children older than the age of three years.  Darunavir is used in combination with other medicines such as Ritonavir and Lamivudine. If used by a patient with HIV infection, Darunavir blocks an HIV enzyme called protease inhibitors (PIs). By blocking protease, PIs cuts down the spreading of HIV and can therefore reduce the amount of HIV in the body (Guo, Han & Liu 2010). However, Darunavir can lead to serious side effects such as  severe skin reaction or rashes and liver problems. For this reason, it is highly recommended that the victims of HIV should frequently consult medical providers whenever they encounter complications when still undergoing Darunavir treatment (Crowell et al. 2014).

Educational Strategies for Diabetic and HIV Patients to Make Certain Effective Self-Management

The study presented in this paper has succeeded in pointing out some important information in regard to diabetes and HIV infection. In fact, the paper has recognised the fact that victims of such diseases can comfortably move on with their life without developing any further complications as a result of the infection (Drotar 2014). With that being the case, this goal will be achieved if only the affected and the afflicted opt to follow or pay attention to certain precautions.

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First, it is important to remember that the affected should take full responsibility of ensuring that he or she does not develop additional complications caused by the infection (Guo, Han & Liu 2010). In this regard,  for a diabetic and HIV patient to create effective self-management strategies, he/she should be required to make informed decisions upon his/her life style, diet, physical exercises, and exactly how he/she relates with people around (Drotar 2014). The study has indeed shown that diabetic patients are required to practice choosing diets that have low level of carbohydrates. In addition to this, these patients should also do regular physical exercises that are aimed at reducing fat content in their body (Kalra et al. 2011). In the case of a HIV patient, it is recommended that he/she carefully chooses those he/she closely relates with; the idea in this case is aimed at reducing instances where the patient may feel as an outcast as a result of being shunned by his/her friends (Crowell et al. 2014).  

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Conclusion

In line with that, diabetic and particularly HIV patients require constant therapy and treatment. Advice and counselling from a medical team will give them a good reason to face tomorrow with confidence. Additionally, constantly visiting to a medical practitioner is one of the best ways of how a patient can receive important updates about his health status as well as the current discovery about the infection. In the event whereby a patient fully understands his/her condition, he or she has more chances to live healthier. Understanding one condition is necessary because it allows the patient to seek for medication whenever he develops complications. Last but not least, self-management and maintenance calls for self discipline. That would mean being in the right place at the right time. If one succeeds in self-management, he or she will be required to pay attention to certain day to day routines. For instance, participating in physical exercises and constant taking of drugs following the doctor’s prescription requires the affected to be highly disciplined.

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