Online Custom «Workers Organizations during the Time of the First and Second International» Essay Sample
The international organization of workers is an association that was founded because of the growth of the laborers movement in the time of the evolution from pre-monopoly capitalism to imperialism. The first international commenced with the formation of the working class political parties in America and Europe. It formed workers organizations that grew fast in major countries like Germany and France thus becoming the strongest among other nations (Silver, 2003). The second international workers organization started its roots on the foundation of the first association in collaboration with extensive diffusion of Marxist ideas. It was enhanced by the solidarity of Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, Spain and Sweden (VanDaele, 2005). Both movements were aimed at bringing together workers of different countries to discuss ideas and develop working relations.
The leaders of the organization made efforts in exceptionally advancing the second workers’ association. They came up with an initiative of giving the Marxist forces the responsibility of calling the internationalist congress (VanDaele, 2005). This move made it possible to counterbalance the tendencies of reformists and the anarchists who at the time had the ambitions of becoming the founders of the organization. Engels and the Marxism workers’ association aggressively contributed to the preparations of the international congress.
The First international was essentially the initial and founding congress. It was convoked in Paris in 1889 by the Marxists. The participating members included 393 delegates (Silver, 2003). They were among the other laborers and members of community associations. It was also composed of the national workers and the social organization members from America and Europe (Haimson & Sapelli, 1992). The supporters of the revolutionary tendencies of Marxism and the anarchists were also present. The main focus of the issues related to the merging struggle of economics and politics in relation to the working class. They focused on the attainment of the power conquest through the creation of socialist parties in support of the existing trade unions. By issuing the labor legislation, they adopted a proposal by Marxists on the reforms of the bourgeois state through the struggle of the parliament (Haimson & Sapelli, 1992). The achievement of reforms was aimed at improving the labor class working conditions in their workplace. The proletarian movement’s objective was to fight for socialism. Resolutions were made on the immediate tasks, like the proposal of eight-hour a day. They approved a day for celebrating the solidarity of the international proletarian (Silver, 2003). The achievement of the international organization was primarily based on one suggestion. From the onset, and almost without exertion of many efforts, they struggled to adopt the standpoint of Marxism in every essential state.
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The Second International workers organization took place in 1891 in Brussels in the month of August. The congress produced potential solutions to the problems under discussion and came up with the best approach to move the organization forward toward the achievement of their objectives (Foner, 1988). The association believed in the code of adapting the most qualified and supported resolution. During the congress, they adopted the Lieb-Knecht’s resolution that dictated the approach of the working class towards militarism. The people present were after the attainment of peace amongst themselves. This move was perceived to be barred by the system of capitalism. Militarism was seen to be closely attached to capitalism, and they had to find another channel leading to the world of tranquility and peace (Haimson & Sapelli, 1992). They revealed that hostilities and wars were inevitable products of the system of capitalism. They chose the option of adapting to the socialist society in order to facilitate termination of militarism and autocracy. The social society’s alternative was professed to bring about serenity to the countries represented and the world as a whole (Ayusawa, 2005). Through the interaction of different people with diverse ideologies, unanimity was expected to be the aftermath. Any contradicting issues that could bring about divisions had the chance of getting ironed out, thus realizing unison among the members. The social society was seen to be the bridge that had to be crossed in order to create a calm ground for development and enhancement of the financial position of the countries. Critical issues that existed had to be solved by the approved strategy that included improvement of regional and international trade and formation of favorable ground for the interconnection of critical ideas. The assistance of the weak parties in the organization was also perceived to be attainable for the implementation of the social society’s principles (Silver, 2003).
The social society’s strategic resolutions were geared towards the protest against any eminent attempts for the preparation for war. It campaigned for the dialogue principle to be utilized in the event of any disparity concerning issues among the nations (Foner, 1988). The opinions were based on the formation of centrally commanded union that advocated the move of depriving power from the dominating nations. A proposal was made to imply that no nation had the power to declare a state of war without conferring with the other members of the organization. The association had the prime powers in the event of a declaration of battle among nations. The second workers international did not put much emphasis on the stable measures for the fight against militarism and autocracy. It laid down concrete measures to propel the organization to greater heights (Ayusawa, 2005). The association was moving towards deciding on the repercussions that could commensurate to the contravention of the laid down ethics of the organization. The organization was also looking forward to sensitizing the issue of ranking in the second international. In the status system, it acted as the steering wheel for the organization to be fully discussed in the next international. The matters that were conversed with no concrete conclusion gave the elucidation that the workers’ parties that exclusively acknowledged the struggle connected to politics could solely remain in the ranking of the Second International organization (Linebaugh & Rediker, 2000). The fundamental question of the tactics of politics related to the social democracy. The association was working towards the realization of political rights in order to conquer the political power and convert it from a tool used in capital rule into a tool essential for the working class emancipation (Silver, 2003).
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